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Sep 27th 2001

This survey has drawn on the work of many authors. The parts of the survey that deal with multinationals in the developing countries owe a particular debt to "Fighting the Wrong Enemy: Anti-Global Activists and Multinational Enterprises" by Edward Graham, published by the Institute for International Economics.

Representative selections from the anti-globalist canon include: "No Logo" by Naomi Klein, Picador, 2000; "Whose Trade Organisation?" by Lori Wallach and Michelle Sforza, Public Citizen, 1999; "The Captive State" by George Monbiot, Macmillan, 2000; "Everthing for Sale" by Robert Kuttner, Knopf, 1997; "Dark Victory" by Walden Bello and others, Food First Books, 1999; and "The Silent Takeover" by Noreena Hertz, Heinemann, 2001. A more persuasive sceptic (or quasi-sceptic) than any of these is Dani Rodrik: see "Has Globalisation Gone Too Far?" Institute for International Economics (IIE), 1997; "The New Global Economy and Developing Countries: Making Openness Work", Overseas Development Council, 1999; and "Governance of Economic Globalisation", an essay in "Governance in a Globalising World", edited by Joseph Nye and John Donahue, Brookings, 2000. (This volume contains many other interesting papers.) Joseph Stiglitz's memorably intemperate attack on the IMF and the World Bank appeared in New Republic, issue of April 17th 2000.

"The Lexus and the Olive Tree" by Thomas Friedman, Farrar Straus and Giroux, 2000, is a best-selling, much-quoted and deeply unsatisfactory sort-of defence of globalisation. Much the most effective rebuttal of the charges levelled by anti-globalists against multinationals is "Fighting the Wrong Enemy" by Edward Graham, IIE, 2000. See also two pamphlets by David Henderson: "The MAI Affair: A Story and Its Lessons", Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1999, and "Anti-Liberalism 2000", Institute of Economic Affairs, 2000. The website of the Institute for International Economics contains a section devoted to briefing papers and other materials on globalisation: warmly recommended.

Academic books and papers referred to in the survey include the following. "Trade and Income Distribution" by William Cline, IIE, 1997; "Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration" by Jeffrey Sachs and Andrew Warner, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol 1, 1995; "Does Trade Cause Growth?" by Jeffrey Frankel and David Romer, American Economic Review, June 1998; "Growth is Good for the Poor" and "Trade, Growth and Poverty", both by David Dollar and Aart Kraay, World Bank Research Papers 2587 and 2615, respectively, available at; and "Outward Orientation and Development: Are Revisionsits Right?" by T.N. Srinivasan and Jagdish Bhagwati, available at All of these contain extensive references to other literature.

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